Introduction
展覽概述
展覽概述

香港是中國傳統武術的重要樞紐之一,自二十世紀中更成為世界功夫電影之都。功夫既是社區文化的一部分,同時為香港電影重要的元素,兩者之間的互動,造就了獨特並具有魅力的香港文化,把以功夫為代表的中華文化推往國際。如今,功夫已昇華為中華文化中最重要並廣為人知的標記。另一方面,自一九四九年以降,電影成為大眾認識功夫的主流媒介,對中國武術發展具有深遠的影響。民間武術與影視的互動與融合創造了香港功夫電影,而最早結合功夫與大眾傳媒的則是嶺南洪拳。

二十世紀初,洪拳盛行於廣東。回應大時代傳統文化的更新,嶺南洪拳大家林世榮(1860-1943年)進行對中國武術現代化和普及化的改革,堪稱廣東武術現代化的先驅。民國初期,林氏開始在香港開展武術活動,至三十年代攜同家眷移居香江,並以此為總部。戰後,林家繼續在香港引領武林的發展;六十年代始,林家洪拳的門人陸續移居海外,嶺南洪拳便成為最早揚名海外的拳種,之後逐漸壯大,發展成國際上最廣為人知、最受歡迎的功夫流派之一。

洪拳也是早年功夫電影和其他媒體的創作泉源。在搬上大銀幕前,洪拳和一眾洪拳名家早已成為多部流行小說的題材,包括黃飛鴻(1847-1924年)和林世榮的傳記小說,後來更製成膾炙人口的廣播劇《黃飛鴻與林世榮》。這些作品大受歡迎,於是改編成電影,當中包括黃飛鴻經典黑白電影。同時,林世榮之徒劉湛是第一位在大銀幕上飾演其師的演員,他為功夫電影引入全新元素——真實武打——是揉合電影與真功夫的第一人。其子,已故傳奇武術演員、指導、導演劉家良(1934-2013年),所創作的電影作品別具個人風格,在七十至八十年代成為功夫電影主流,影響之深遠延至今天。

本展覽透過林氏、劉氏兩個傳奇武術家庭,追溯民間武術、功夫電影在香港七十年來的雙線軌跡。

Introduction

Hong Kong is one of the most important Chinese martial arts centres and, since the mid-20th century, the de facto capital for kung fu cinema. The interaction between kung fu as community practice and as cinema is not only a defining characteristic of Hong Kong culture, it also played a key role in forging transnational Chinese identity and engendering a global fascination with Chinese martial arts. Kung fu became one of the most powerful symbols for Chinese culture, while film representations came to dominate popular perception of Chinese martial arts. Significantly, the interactions between kung fu practice and cinematic representations began with Lingnan Hung Kuen.

Hung Kuen was a preeminent kung fu style in Guangdong in the early 20th century, while its patriarch, Lam Sai Wing (1860–1943), spearheaded the movement to modernize and popularize Chinese martial arts in Southern China. In the 1930s, Lam Sai Wing and his family established a foothold in Hong Kong, which eventually became their headquarters, and in so doing contributed to making Hong Kong an important kung fu hub. From the 1960s, as students of Lam Family Hung Kuen migrated overseas, Hung Kuen became internationalized, and in time grew into one of the most popular kung fu styles around the world.

Hung Kuen and its masters inspired several popular novels, notably the biographical novels of Wong Fei Hung (1847–1924) and Lam Sai Wing, which later became the subject of a popular radio show “Wong Fei Hung and Lam Sai Wing”. The popularity of these works led to film adaptations, resulting in the iconic black-and-white Wong Fei Hung films. Lau Jaam, one of Lam Sai Wing’s students, was the first actor to be cast in his master’s role, thus merging real kung fu with the world of make-believe. Building on his legacy, his son, the legendary kung fu actor, choreographer and director Lau Kar Leung (1934–2013) created a new cinematic language founded on his profound knowledge of traditional martial arts, taking kung fu cinema to new heights in the 1970s and 1980s. His influence continues to be felt today.

Through the legendary Lam and Lau families, this exhibition traces the parallel development of kung fu practice and cinema in Hong Kong over the course of the past seventy years.

1920s
二十年代
二十年代
  • 一九二一年林世榮為廣州孤兒院籌款公開演出「虎鶴雙形拳」,贏得國父孫中山的讚賞,並頒發一面獎牌以作嘉許。
  • 一九二二年林世榮受邀到香港肉類總商會教授洪拳。起初在中環街市開始,但很快便在香港其他地區開班,林祖為主要助教。
  • 一九二三年由門生協助,林世榮出版了《工字伏虎拳》及《虎鶴雙形拳》。
1920s
  • In 1921, Lam Sai Wing performed Tiger and Crane Paired Form at a public charity event to raise funds for Guangzhou Orphanage. Sun Yat Sen, who was present at the time, awarded a medal to Lam Sai Wing for his efforts.
  • In 1922 Lam Sai Wing was invited by Hong Kong Butchers’ Association to teach Hung Kuen. He initially taught at the Central market but soon opened branches in other parts of the city, with Lam Cho as his principal assistant instructor.
  • In 1923 with help from his students Lam Sai Wing published his first boxing manual Gung Gee Fok Fu Kuen Manual, which was followed by Fu Hok Seung Ying Kuen Manual.
1930s
三十年代
三十年代
  • 30年代初期,林世榮及林祖已紮根香港。林祖在中環砵甸乍街開設他的第一間武館。林家的影響力在香港迅速擴大,其後在不同地區都有開館,大量門生慕名而來拜師跟隨。林世榮後來在南天王陳濟棠(1890–1954年)執政廣東時期,成為他的教官及陳濟棠家人的私人武術老師。
  • 1934年,林世榮創立南武體育會,香港最早期現代中國武術會之一,同時亦是香港戰前最重要的武館之一。他邀請耿德海作為北方武術的導師,而林祖則為南方武術的首席教練。
  • 林祖致力出版了《林世榮工字伏虎拳》特別版以紀念林世榮。
1930s
  • By the early 1930s Lam Sai Wing and Lam Cho were well establishedin Hong Kong. Lam Cho opened his first school in Pottinger Street, Central. The Lam family soon built up a large following in Hong Kong, with branches in several areas of the city.
  • Lam Sai Wing became personal martial arts instructor to Chen Jitang’s family in Guangzhou after the latter rose to power.
  • In 1934 Lam Sai Wing set up Nam Mou Athletic Association, one of the earliest modern Chinese martial arts associations in Hong Kong. He invited Geng Dehai to be the principal instructor for northern martial arts, while Lam Cho was the head instructor for southern martial arts. It was one of the most important martial arts organisations in Hong Kong before the War.
  • Lam Cho led the effort to publish a special edition of Lam Sai Wing Gung Gee Fok Fu Kuen Manual in commemoration of Lam Sai Wing.
1940s
四十年代
四十年代
  • 由於香港局勢不穩,林祖在1940年時帶同妻子及叔父林世榮遷回祖家南海平洲,林世榮其後在1943年時於祖家安然去世。二戰後,林祖攜同家人返回香港,在灣仔藍屋落戶。他亦在那成立武館及醫館。
1940s
  • Finding his position in Hong Kong untenable, Lam Cho returned to his home village of Ping Chau in 1940, together with his wife and infant son Lam Chun Fai and uncle Lam Sai Wing, who was terminally ill. He returned to Hong Kong and took up lodgings in the tenement building on Stone Nullah Lane (the “Blue House”) after the War, where he also set up his martial arts school and clinic.
1950s
五十年代
五十年代
林家
  • 1951年,林世榮之徒朱愚齋 出版了《鐵線拳》。此拳譜其後被公認為是洪拳中最深奧的拳術。 憑著林家的在香港的影響力及當時大受歡迎的一系列黃飛鴻電影,洪拳的地位在二戰後的數年迅速竄起。林家亦多次獲邀到不同地區的廟會作表演,包括大坑舞火龍及長洲天后誕。
1950s
Lam Family
  • In 1951, Lam Sai Wing’s student, the writer Chu Yu Zai, published a manual on Iron Wire Boxing, which is widely considered to represent the highest level and contain the most esoteric aspects of Hung Kuen.
  • In the immediate post-war years, aided equally by the Lam family’s influence and the immensely popular Wong Fei Hung films, Hung Kuen became widely popular in Hong Kong. The Lam family was invited to perform in the temple festivals in many neighbourhoods and districts throughout Hong Kong, including during Tai Hang Fire Dragon parades and at Cheung Chau Tin Hou Festival.
1960s
六十年代
六十年代
  • 60年代初,林鎮輝在北角開設他的個人醫館連武館。
  • 1960年代,由於香港人口急速增長,出現了缺水等問題。林祖及數位武術師傅在灣仔伊利沙伯體育館演出籌款。
  • 林家與一眾電影業舉足輕重的人物都保持良好互動,而與演員新馬師曾更是友好,他曾多次出席林家所舉辦的活動。與此同時,不同的電影公司亦有找林家合作拍攝電影。
1960s
  • In the early 1960s Lam Chun Fai opened his own ditda clinic and martial arts school in North Point.
  • In the 1960s, with rapid population growth Hong Kong continued to experience water shortage. During a serious drought Lam Cho and other leading martial artists performed publicly at Wanchai Queen Elizabeth Stadium to raise funds.
  • The Lam had close contact with leading figures in the film industry, including the actor Tang Wing Cheung, who was a personal friend of the families and attended many of their functions. During this period film studios also courted the Lam family to collaboration on film ventures.
1970s
七十年代
七十年代
  • 1970年代,林家在香港的地位到達高峰,但同時亦招惹不少人妒忌。林家曾捲入了長洲天后誕械鬥事件,這亦為在香港發生過的同類事件最為嚴重的一次。
1970s
  • The Lam family arguably reached the peak of their influence in Hong Kong during the 1970s. However, this also attracted a great deal of jealousy. The Lam family got embroiled in a xie dou conflict once during the Cheung Chau Tin Hau Festival parade. It was one of the most serious conflicts of its kind to have taken place in Hong Kong.
1980s
八十年代
八十年代
  • 林鎮顯英年早逝,留下他在藍屋的醫館給他的遺孀陸麗燕女士。陸女士至今仍一直經營這間鐵打館。
1980s
  • Lam Chun Hin passed away and left his clinic in Blue House to his wife Luk Lai Yin, who continued his ditda practice which runs to this day.
1990s
九十年代
九十年代
  • 林鎮輝在哈佛大學舉辦多場講座並開始在海外教授洪拳。
1990s
  • Lam Chun Fai gave a series of Hung Kuen seminars at Harvard University and began to teach overseas.
2000s
二千年
二千年
  • 林鎮輝在銀行退休後改為全職教授洪拳。2千年時,他主力在美國及歐洲教拳,將洪拳宣揚開去。
2000s
  • After retiring from his position at the bank, Lam Chun Fai began to teach martial arts full-time. During the 2000s he spent a considerable amount of time teaching martial arts in the United States and Europe, spreading the seeds of Hung Kuen.
2010s
二零一零
二零一零
  • 2013年,林鎮輝在父親林祖逝世後一年出版了《洪拳入門︰伏虎拳》。
  • 2014年,林鎮輝聯同門生趙式慶共同出版了系列的第二本《洪拳功夫︰戰掌暨伏虎對拆》。
  • 2017年,系列的第三本《鐵線拳》面世。
  • 林家在2014年開始與中華國術總會合作,輔以動態捕捉技術記錄,保育洪拳技術。
2010s
  • In 2013, the year after Lam Cho’s death, Lam Chun Fai wrote Hung Kuen Fundamentals: Gung Gee Fok Fu Kuen, which was dedicated to the memory of his late father.
  • In 2014, Lam Chun Fai co-authored Hung Kuen Training: Chin Cheung and Fok Fu Kuen Deui Chak, the second book of his series with his student Hing Chao.
  • In 2017, the third book of the new series, Iron Wire Boxing, was released.
  • Also in 2014, the Lam family began to experiment the use of motion capture through collaboration with International Guoshu Association as a viable new technology to document and protect the heritage of Hung Kuen.
Cinema
電影
電影

片名:《少林三十六房》
上映年份:1978年

《少林三十六房》也許是已故名導劉家良眾多作品之中最廣為人知的。此片能夠歷久不衰,不無原因,例如是電影中經典的練武片段、劉家輝將三德和尚勇武的形象表現得淋漓盡致,以及劉家良超卓的導演及武術指導才華。

電影中武術修練的進程一半源自真實武打經驗,另一半出於劉導演的想像,深深啟發了一個時代的武術家,遍及本地、海外。在開場一連串豐富的動作場面中,劉家輝練習各種功法和兵器,此段也為全片定下基調,名副其實地體現中國功夫之身體文化。

劉導演同一時期其他作品中的武打動作均出自他對傳統武術深刻的認知,特別是洪拳,令片中的武術編排格外具體、真實。從武術的角度看,大部分動作直接採用嶺南洪拳,尤以拳、刀兩房最為明顯,其他練武場面——例如棍房——則展現出劉導演在設計武術動作方面的豐富想像力。

《少林三十六房》取得巨大成就,也衍生出一系列以少林為主題的電影作品:《少林搭棚大師》(1980)、《少林寺》(1982)、《少林小子》(1984)《南北少林》(1986),使少林廣獲世界各地人們的喜愛。

Cinema

Film: The 36th Chamber of Shaolin
Release date: 1978

The 36th Chamber of Shaolin, also known as The Master Killer and Shaolin Master Killer, was perhaps the most widely known of Director Lau Kar Leung’s many films. Its enduring popularity owes to a number of factors including the film’s iconic training scenes, Gordon Liu’s roaring success as the Shaolin warrior monk Sande, as well as Lau Kar Leung’s genius as director and fight choreographer.

The training sequences, informed in equal measure by real martial arts training and Lau’s imagination, inspired a whole generation of practitioners, not only in Hong Kong but around the world. The wonderful action-packed opening credits, which see Gordon Liu going through various types of training and weapon practice, set the stage for the rest of the film, which is a veritable celebration of the physical culture of Chinese martial arts.

As with other of Lau’s films from this period, the kung fu action is founded upon his profound knowledge of traditional martial arts, particularly Hung Kuen, which provided the substance for the choreography. From a martial arts point of view, plenty of the action is taken directly from the rich repertoire of Lingnan Hung Kuen, with the fist and sabre chambers being particularly illustrative, while other training scenes such as the pole chamber show Lau’s abundant imaginative ability as choreographer.

The success of The 36th Chamber of Shaolin led to a series of Shaolin-inspired films, including Return to the 36th Chamber (1980), Shaolin Temple (1982), Kids from Shaolin (1984), and Martial Arts of Shaolin (1986), which contributed significantly to the global fascination with Shaolin.

電影

片名:《陸阿采與黃飛鴻》
上映年份:1976年

《陸阿采與黃飛鴻》是劉家良導演最早執導、兼任武術指導的作品之一。全片圍繞傳奇功夫大師黃飛鴻,劉家良承自父親劉湛的虎鶴雙形拳正是由黃飛鴻所創立。

此片取材於黃飛鴻跟從武術大師陸阿采習武一事,在電影中劉家良塑造出一個全新的黃飛鴻:年輕,勇猛,英俊,完全推翻了關德興演繹的成熟形象。這樣改編具有一定風險,因為黃飛鴻黑白電影系列已成為膾炙人口的經典,而且該系列在1960年代末才結束,與劉氏版本只相隔幾年。

劉家良繼執導首部作品《神打》(1975)大獲好評,一年後拍成《陸阿采與黃飛鴻》。此片涵蓋所有劉氏電影的經典元素,除了開場帶來豐富的視覺享受、場景及道具布置精細且別具風格外,故事情節乃取材自洪拳民間傳說,高潮迭起,當然還少不了精心設計、極具欣賞價值的武打場面,完美地揉合藝術與功夫。劉家良與徒弟劉家輝決鬥的場面更展示出前者身為武術指導及功夫演員的過人才華,堪稱功夫電影界最經典片段之一。

比娛樂價值更高一層的是,《陸阿采與黃飛鴻》體現出劉氏武術哲學,折射其對中國武術動作以至武德的見解,這些思想在之後的《少林三十六房》、《武館》等作品得到進一步闡釋。

Cinema

Film: Challenge of the Masters
Release date: 1976

Challenge of the Masters is among the earliest films Lau Kar Leung directed and fight-choreographed. The subject matter is the coming of age of legendary kung fu grandmaster, Wong Fei Hung, who created the “Tiger and Crane style” of Lingnan Hung Kuen Lau Kar Leung inherited from his father, Lau Jaam.

Inspired by a story that Wong Fei Hung learnt martial arts directly from the legendary master Luk Ah Choy, in this film Lau created a brand new image of Wong Fei Hung, young, bold and handsome, completely overturning Kwan Tak Hing’s earlier, more mature, representation. It was a risky undertaking given the enormous success of the earlier black and white Wong Fei Hung film franchise, which only came to a close at the end of the 1960s a few years earlier.

Riding on Lau Kar Leung’s debut directorial success with Spiritual Boxer (1975) a year earlier, Challenge of the Masters has all the elements of a classic Lau Kar Leung film, with a visually engaging opening, intricate and stylized stage sets, a dramatic story drawn from Hung Kuen’s rich oral lore and, of course, artistically crafted fight scenes that are the perfect fusion of art and kung fu. Lau Kar Leung’s fight scene with his protégé Gordon Liu showcases his talent as fight choreographer and kung fu actor at his best, and is arguably one of the most memorable scenes in kung fu cinema.

Beyond its entertainment value, however, Challenge of the Masters is also a statement of Lau’s martial arts thinking, in that it contains ideas on both the physical as well as the mental-ethical sides of Chinese martial arts, which are to receive further elaboration in The 36th Chamber of Shaolin, Martial Club and other films.

電影

片名:《武館》
上映年份:1981年

《武館》是劉家良其中一部傑作。此片和他眾多作品一樣,最令人讚嘆之處是揉合了真實、懷舊和幻想三種元素。故事設定在廣州、已然逝去的清末年代。此片重塑出南派武術的黃金時代——當時廣州是商業中心,南北各派武功雲集當地,並且頻繁交流,衍生出許多今天為人熟知的嶺南功夫。

電影具體、有力地表達出對「失落天堂」懷緬與不捨之情,特別是劉氏在敍述過程中加入一些小插曲,極有可能來自父親劉湛親眼目睹或親身經歷的往事,而後把這些點滴記憶傳給他。

電影開始時有一段編排精細的獅舞,直觀地反映出廣州歷史。中華民國時期(1911-49年),廣州商業急促發展,加上在國民政府鼓勵下國術大熱,許多武館如雨後春荀在珠江三角洲一帶冒出,舞獅藝術發展至巔峰。每逢廟會或開舖儀式,各武館獲邀請表演舞獅,競相設計新穎的招式和表演。電影初段的舞獅表演更展示最著名的「疊羅漢」,可視作劉導演以電影手法重塑傳奇的疊羅漢動作,這段表演自此成為舞獅技藝展現的最高峰。

最後一幕劉家輝與王龍威在窄巷內決鬥,這段長約七分鐘的打戲被奉為劉家良編排過最出色的武打片段之一,可以說,他把功夫元素提煉昇華至藝術的境界。該幕經典片段至今依然為後人提供恆常參考以及源源不絕的靈感。

Cinema

Film: Martial Club
Release date: 1981

Martial Club is one of Lau Kar Leung’s masterpieces. As with so many of his films, its compelling nature derives from a seamless combination of realism, nostalgia and make-believe. Set in the by-gone days of late Qing Guangzhou, Martial Club evokes a golden era when intense, febrile interactions between northern and southern martial arts in the bustling commercial hub of Guangzhou city gave birth to many of the Lingnan kung fu styles we know today.

The nostalgia for a “lost paradise” is given the grit and substance of reality, however, as Lau fleshed out the narrative with vignettes his father might have personally witnessed or even taken part in, and handed down to Lau Kar Leung.

The elaborate lion dance scene in the beginning of the film is directly taken out of a chapter from Guangzhou’s history. During the Republican period (1911-49), lion dance in Guangzhou reached new heights, as rapid commercialization and rising popularity of martial arts under the Nationalist government led to an unprecedented growth of kung fu schools (or clubs) in the Pearl River Delta. At temple festivals and shop openings, different schools were invited to perform lion dance, and they vied with each other in ever more creative routines and performances. The opening sequence is a reference to the famed stacked-pyramid lion dance performance, and as such may be viewed as a cinematic reconstruction of a legendary performance, which was regarded as the peak – unsurpassed since – of lion dance.

The finale, a seven-minute boxing duel between Gordon Liu and Johnny Wang (Wang Lung Wei) in a narrow alley, is often hailed as the greatest fight scene choreographed by Lau Kar Leung, who truly elevated kung fu movements into a rarefied art form. This scene continues to be a constant source of reference and inspiration.

電影

片名 :《五郎八卦棍》
上映年份 :1983年

劉家良導演憑此片獲1985年香港電影節最佳動作設計提名。
此片在劉家良的作品中屬罕見悲壯風格。故事改編自民間傳說,講述宋代楊家將慘遭大將軍潘美滅門,惟五郎、六郎成功逃出。片中飾演楊六郎的武打巨星傅聲突然離世,為電影籠上一層陰影,所以結局部分使用了早前拍好的片段,可以看到六郎終於抵家,卻因為歷經苦難而變得瘋瘋癲癲。至於五郎(劉家輝飾)最初一心想報仇,為增進武藝求入寺院,由於不能在寺內練習家傳槍法,於是自創出八卦棍法。他慚慚領悟並接受寺中僧侶的教誨,最終出山拯救家人。
片中棍法為嶺南洪拳著名之五郎八卦棍法,經精心設計呈現在觀眾眼前。八卦棍既為南派武術中最精湛的棍種之一,同時亦象徵佛家的和平主義。片中有一段精彩的練功片段,就是要求僧人拔去木狼的牙,此舉是為了突顯即使對方是敵人也不得殺生的道理,也預示了最後一場打戲——此幕雖以兇殘著稱,但當中功夫技巧高超,動作如芭蕾舞步般美妙,設計得相當精巧。
劉家良本身是一位洪家拳大師,在戲中表現也令人難忘。他在其中一幕飾演獵人,與劉家輝飾演的楊五郎一起戰鬥,最終更為他犧牲。

Cinema

Film: The Eight Diagram Pole Fighter
Release date: 1983

Lau Kar Leung was nominated for Best Action Choreography at the 1985 Hong Kong Film Awards for his work on this film, which was also released as The Invincible Pole Fighter outside of Hong Kong.

This unusually dark film from Lau Kar Leung is based on a legend of a Sung dynasty-era massacre of the Yang family by General Pan Mei, from which only two of the family's males managed to escape. Production was overshadowed by the untimely death of martial arts star Alexander Fu Sheng - who played the sixth son of the Yang family – and the plot was subsequently adapted using footage already shot to see him having completed the journey home but tragically driven insane by his experiences. The fifth son (Gordon Liu), initially seeking revenge, begs to join a monastery in order to improve his fighting skills. Unable to practise his family’s spear technique within the monastery, he develops the unique Eight Trigram pole-fighting techniques. Having gradually grown to understand and accept the monks’ teachings, he later comes out of hiding to rescue his family.

The Eight Trigram pole-fighting techniques are a famous pole-fighting form in Hung Kuen, and are demonstrated throughout in magnificently choreographed scenes. The pole-staff, a one of the best-known martial arts weapons, is deployed as a symbol of Buddhist pacifist values. In one key training sequence a wooden wolf is “de-fanged” by the monks to demonstrate the importance of not killing one’s enemies, a lesson which foreshadows the film’s infamous final fight scene. The brutality of the combat is offset by near-balletic martial arts techniques and beautiful cinematography.

Lau Kar Leung (a world-class Hung Gar master himself) makes a memorable appearance as a hunter in one scene, fighting against and alongside - and finally sacrificing himself for - Gordon Liu’s character.

Masters
宗師
宗師

林家洪拳創始人
林世榮(1860–1943年)

林世榮生於南海平洲一個武術世家,自幼習家族留傳的「林氏洪拳」,為後來發展打下非常紮實的根基。林世榮是民國時期最重要的廣東武術家之一。後來,在南天王陳濟棠(1890–1954年)執政廣東時期,更成為他的教官及陳濟棠家人的私人武術老師。三十年代林世榮攜家移居香港,把一些新的重要武術概念帶至香江。其創立的南武體育會,推廣廣泛意義的中華武術及尚武精神,積極吸納南北方傑出的武術家,開創香港現代「國術」的先河。

林世榮也是最早使用現代攝影技術紀錄武術和公開發行拳譜的人之一,從一九二三年到一九五一年先後出版的《工字伏虎拳》、《虎鶴雙形拳》和《鐵線拳》,記錄了林世榮和林家洪拳最核心並最重要的武藝,也完整保留了黃飛鴻傳下來的主要拳術。

Masters

Founder of Lam Family Hung Kuen
Lam Sai Wing(1860–1943)

Lam Sai Wing was born in a martial arts family from Ping Chau, Nam Hoi (Nanhai) prefecture, in Guangdong province. He was among the most important martial artists in Guangdong in the early 20th century. During the governorship of Chen Jitang (1890–1954), Lam became a martial arts instructor in his army and family teacher, and later made Hong Kong his base. The Nam Mou Athletic Association he set up lay the foundation for “modern Guoshu” development in Hong Kong. Lam Sai Wing was among the first to systematically document traditional martial arts. Between 1923 and 1951, he and his students published manuals for Taming the Tiger Boxing, Tiger and Crane Boxing and Iron Wire Boxing.

宗師

林家第二代傳人
林祖(1910–2012年)

林祖,幼失怙恃,自小由叔父林世榮養育。林祖師傅用一生的精力,專注傳授和研究武藝。祖公有過人的記憶和敏銳的眼光,能過目不忘,把大量流行民間的經典武藝吸納入林家洪拳,最後融匯各家各派武藝,大大擴充了林家洪拳的套路與技術。

林祖很早就認識到「創新」的重要性,所以,他對傳下的洪拳套路做了有效而合理的調整。林祖改進了「工字伏虎拳」──重新編排套路順序,減少重複的動作及增加整個套路的靈活性和趣味。同時,林祖也十分重視實用訓練。由此,他為「虎鶴雙形拳」設計出一套新的對拆套路,有助人們了解其繁複動作的各種應用方式。其外,他又將其他門派的精采拳術套路引入洪拳系統,包括「劉家拳」、「崩步」和「猴拳」等。

總括林祖對洪拳的貢獻,他對兵器武藝下了最大的功夫,也有最顯著的成就。相比叔父世榮公傳下的有限器械武藝,林祖匯編了大量的兵器套路,包括「劉家棍」(又稱「流水棍」)、「蝴蝶雙刀」、「雙龍刀」、「行者棒」,「單刀」、「小挑」、「梅花槍」、「崑崙劍」、「瑤家大鈀」等。每種武器都是華南各兵器種類中最優秀的。

Masters

Lam Family Second Generation Master
Lam Cho (1910–2012)

Lam Cho was raised by his uncle Lam Sai Wing. Gifted with extraordinary memory and a keen sense of observation, Lam Cho incorporated many classic martial art sets and techniques into Lam Family Hung Kuen. Lam Family Hung Kuen as we know it owes much to Master Lam Cho’s reform and innovation: he made Taming the Tiger Boxing less repetitive, and came up with a new two-man training set for Fu Hok Seung Ying Kuen (Tiger and Crane Boxing). He also assimilated other outstanding empty-hand sets into the Hung Kuen system, notably Lau Gar Kuen (Lau Family Boxing), Bun Bou (Crushing Step) and Hou Kuen (Monkey Style). However, it is in weapons that Lam Cho made the greatest contribution. Compared to the limited range of weapon techniques inherited from his uncle, he assembled and choreographed a large number of weapon sets including Lau Family Staff (Lau Gar Gwan), Wu Dip Seung Dou (Butterfly Double Knives), Seung Long Dou (Double Dragon Swords), Monkey Staff (Hang Che Pang), Daan Dou, Siu Tiu, Mui Fa Cheung, Yiu Gar Dai Par, etc.

宗師

林家第三代傳人
林鎮輝(1940年-)
林鎮輝是林祖長子,五歲隨父習武,十二歲開始授教。弱冠之年已在北角開設跌打醫館,行醫濟世並傳授洪拳。

林祖先生過世後,林鎮輝成為林家洪拳的最高權威,也是全球洪拳最富有凝聚力的人物。林鎮輝現為林世榮洪拳研究院主席。

自九十年代起,林鎮輝便經常受邀到歐美國家教授林家洪拳。近年林家武藝在歐洲蓬勃的發展,便是林鎮輝多年一直在歐洲多國宣揚洪拳的成果。至今林家洪拳的門人桃李遍及全球,在美國、加拿大、英國、德國、意大利、捷克、希臘、荷蘭、瑞典等多個國家都有直系的分館。

在把林家洪拳推至海外的同時,林鎮輝一直關注傳統武術在香港的發展。香港特區政府民政事務局在二零一零年邀請公眾人士參與全港地區調查,以識別重要的本地文化項目,徵集第一次香港非物質文化遺產清單。收到這消息後林鎮輝馬上聯同中華國術總會申報「林家洪拳」、「工字伏虎拳」、「虎鶴雙形拳」、「鐵線拳」、「五郎八卦棍」等,成為香港非物質文化遺產。與此同時,林鎮輝開始組織門生,聯同合作單位中華國術總會進行系統的紀錄和出版工作。

Masters

Lam Family Third Generation Master
Lam Chun Fai (1940– )

Lam Chun Fai, the eldest son of Lam Cho, started to learn martial arts when he was five and began to assist his father to instruct martial arts at the age of twelve. By the age of twenty, he had already opened his own dit da clinic-cum-martial arts school in North Point. Since Lam Cho’s passing, Lam Chun Fai has become the de facto head of Lam Family Hung Kuen, and is the current chairman of Lam Sai Wing Hung Kuen Research Society.Since the 1990s, Lam Chun Fai has been travelling to Europe and America to teach Hung Kuen. Today, Lam Family Hung Kuen practitioners and enthusiasts can be found all over the world, with branch schools in the U.S., Canada, the U.K., Germany, Italy, Czech Republic, Greece, the Netherlands, Sweden and many other countries.

While actively promoting Lam Family Hung Kuen abroad, Lam Chun Fai also keeps a watchful eye on the development of traditional martial arts in Hong Kong. In 2010, Hong Kong Home Affairs Bureau invited the public to join a regional survey to identify important local cultural heritage for the first Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICH) inventory list of Hong Kong. Upon receiving the news, Lam Chun Fai immediately partnered with International Guoshu Association to apply “Lam Family Hung Kuen”, “Taming the Tiger Boxing in I-Pattern”, “Tiger and Crane Boxing”, “Iron Wire Boxing”, and “Fifth Brother’s Eight Trigram Pole”, asHong Kong’s ICH. At the same time, gathering his students, Lam Chun Fai began to collaborate with International Guoshu Association to systematically document the legacy of Lam Family Hung Kuen, leading to a series of publications as well as the present exhibition.

宗師

劉家洪拳宗師
劉湛

劉湛,林世榮最出色的徒弟之一,本身也是一位舉足輕重的洪拳大師,所開創的功夫世家成為武術界傳奇,名遐中外。其學武背景和許多來自廣州的當代武師一樣,不拘於一格,對嶺南和北派功夫均有涉獵。

劉湛學武之路並不平凡。起初他在廣州開武館,後遷居至香港,一邊繼續教授武術,一邊追求演藝事業,曾和關德興一起參與黃飛鴻電影演出,在戲中飾演師父林世榮。劉湛也是最早結合功夫和電影的功夫巨擘之一。他將師父林世榮的形象演繹得唯妙唯肖,既呈現真實武打,又不失幽默,獨樹一幟的演出令觀眾難以忘懷,自此「豬肉榮」(林世榮外號)的形象深入民心,觀眾有關林世榮的想像其實源自劉湛的提煉和演繹。

Masters

Lau Family Hung Kuen First Generation Master
Lau Jaam

One of Lam Sai Wing’s most distinguished students, Lau Jaam became an important Hung Kuen master in his own right. Like many contemporary masters in Guangzhou, Lau Jaam seemed to have a fairly eclectic martial arts background, dabbling in both Lingnan and northern martial arts. Originally, he plied his trade as martial arts teacher in Guangzhou. After moving to Hong Kong he pursued an acting career while continuing to teach martial arts. He was part of the original cast for the Wong Fei Hung films, starring alongside Kwan Tek Hing in the role of his teacher Lam Sai Wing. Lau Jaam was among the earliest kung fu masters to bridge martial arts and cinema, while his memorable portraiture of his master and unique blend of real martial arts and humour, etched a lasting impression of “Butcher Wing” (Lam Sai Wing’s nickname) in the public consciousness.

宗師

劉家洪拳第二代傳人
劉家良(1934–2013年)

洪拳大師劉家良,兼任演員、電影製作人、武術指導,最著名的代表作為1970-1980年代的邵氏功夫影片。劉家良承傳父親劉湛的風格,將真實武打搬上大銀幕,令傳統中國武術,尤其是洪拳,得以普及,繼而傳揚海外。

1960年代,他成為邵氏兄弟主要武術指導之一,與導演張徹合作無間,與唐佳一起在張導演多部作品中擔任武術指導,包括《獨臂刀》(1967)及《雲海玉弓緣》(1966)。1975年推出首部作品《神打》。其後,陸續製作出一系列經典功夫片,包括《陸阿采與黃飛鴻》 (1976)、《少林三十六房》 (1978)、《武館》(1981)、《南北少林》 (1986),為武俠片的黃金年代增添一抹風采。

劉家良的電影孕育劉家輝、傅聲等一代武打巨星。另外,續李小龍之後,劉家良通過電影表達其武術哲學及理想,為作品添上一層獨特的質感與真實感。

Masters

Lau Family Hung Kuen Second Generation Master
Lau Kar Leung (1934–2013)

Lau Kar Leung was a Hung Kuen master as well as actor, filmmaker and choreographer. Lau is best known for the films he made in the 1970s and 1980s for the Shaw Brothers Studio. Following the footsteps of his father, Lau Kar Leung brought “real kung fu” to cinema, and may be credited for popularizing traditional Chinese martial arts – in particular Hung Kuen – around the world. In the 1960s Lau Kar Leung became one of Shaw Brothers' main choreographers and forged a strong partnership with director Chang Cheh, working on many of Chang's films including The One-Armed Swordsman (1967) and The Jade Bow. He made his directorial debut with Spiritual Boxer in 1975, and went on to make a series of highly successful kung fu classics including Challenge of the Masters (1976), The 36th Chamber of Shaolin (1978), Martial Club (1981), Martial Arts of Shaolin (1986), etc., which contributed to the golden age of kung fu cinema. 

Lau Kar Leung nurtured some of the best martial art actors to grace the big screen, such as Gordon Liu and Alexander Fu Sheng. In addition, like Bruce Lee before him, Lau Kar Leung used cinema to express his ideals and philosophy in martial arts, giving his films a unique texture and authenticity.

宗師

劉家洪拳第二代傳人
劉家輝 (1951年– )

劉家輝,本名冼錦熙,劉湛的乾兒子,跟從義兄劉家良學武。

在劉家良的作品中,劉家輝呈現出各種理想化的銀幕功夫英雄形象,更將前者的動作設計以及其多部作品的中心思想——武德,活現於觀眾眼前。70年代末到80年代初,劉家輝攀上事業頂峰,堪稱邵氏電影最耀眼的武打巨星之一,與成龍齊名,並同樣大受歡迎。他與另一武打演員傅聲也多次合作,參與劉家良多部經典作品。其代表作有《陸阿采與黃飛鴻》 (1976)、《中華丈夫》 (1978) 、《少林搭棚大師》(1980) 、《武館》(1981)、《長輩》 (1981)、《五郎八卦棍》 (1983)。不過,他最深入民心的角色,莫過於在《少林三十六房》中飾演的三德和尚,此片將他的名氣推至巔峰,更為他在功夫電影界贏得傳奇的地位。

Masters

Lau Family Hung Kuen Second Generation Master
Gordon Liu (1951– )

Gordon Liu, né Sin Kam Hei (Xian Jinxi), was adopted into the Lau Family by Lau Jaam and learnt Hung Kuen from his adopted brother Lau Kar Leung. In many ways, Gordon Liu was the onscreen avatar of Lau Kar Leung’s idealized martial hero, bringing to life the latter’s choreographic vision as well as ideas about martial virtue, which lies at the heart of many of his films. At the height of his career in the late 1970s and early 1980s, Gordon Liu was arguably the brightest kung fu star for Shaw Brothers’ Studio, rivalling Jackie Chan in name and popularity. Together with Alexander Fu Sheng, he was ever-present in many of Lau Kar Leung’s classic films, including Challenge of the Masters (1976), Heroes of the East (1978), Return to the 36th Chamber (1980), Martial Club (1981), My Young Auntie (1981), The Eight Diagram Pole Fighter (1983), etc. However, he was best known for his role as the monk Sande in The 36th Chamber of Shaolin, which propelled him to fame and for which he has attained a cultic status in kung fu cinema.

Credits
鳴謝
Credits
鳴謝
主辦機構:
Presented by:
香港城市大學
City University of Hong Kong
中華武學會
Institute of Chinese Martial Studies
中華國術總會
International Guoshu Association
支持機構:
Supported by:
香港城市大學互動媒體與電算應用中心
City University of Hong Kong, Centre for Applied Computing and Interactive Media (ACIM)
康樂及文化事務署
Leisure and Cultural Services Department
香港視覺藝術中心
Hong Kong Visual Arts Centre
天映娛樂有限公司
Celestial Pictures Limited
林世榮洪拳研究院
Lam Sai Wing Hung Kuen Research Society
劉家良導演慈善基金有限公司
Lau Kar Leung Film Boxing Director Charitable Foundation Limited
嶺南黃飛鴻洪拳傳人 (劉館)
Ling Nam Wong Fei Hung Lineage Association Lau Kwoon
Ernie Wolfe Gallery
漢雅軒
Hanart TZ Gallery
策展:
Curated by:
趙式慶
Hing Chao
邵志飛
Jeffrey Shaw
策展顧問:
Curatorial Consultant:
Sarah Kenderdine
城市大學展覽館:
CityU Exhibition Gallery:
范懿莎
Isabelle Frank
林家銘
Kevin Lam
何穎
Wendy Ho
顧問:
Advisors:
Ernie Wolfe III
舒琪
Shu Kei
張頌仁
Johnson Chang
視覺,展覽設計及工程:
Visual, Exhibition Design and Construction:
N7 Communication.
研究:
Research:
趙式慶
Hing Chao
項目統籌:
Project coordinators:
蔡子慧
Angela Choi
李遣証
Lee Hin Ching
編輯助理:
Editorial assistants:
傅薇
Christie Fu
蔡子慧
Angela Choi
汪慧華
Marian Ang
藍屋效果圖 :
Blue House Renderings:
李亮聰
Anderson Lee
升建築有限公司
Index Architecture Limited
3D林世榮:
3D Lam Sai Wing:
Waterproof Studios Inc.
昇飛國際數碼特效製作有限公司
vfxNova digital productions Limited
劉家拳與行者棒動畫:
Visualisations of Lau Gar Kuen & Monkey Staff:
Sarah Kenderdine、劉智鋒
Sarah Kenderdine & Ricky Lau
洪拳動作透視與少林三十六房3D影像:
Perspectives of Hung Kuen in Motion & 3D rendering of The 36th Chamber of Shaolin:
香港沙龍電影有限公司
Salon Films (HK) Limited
紀錄片:
Documentary:
伙拍製作室
Four Parts Production